theory in research slideshare

theory in research slideshare

You must review course readings and pertinent research studies for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. 1. Philosophy of Research. Per Vagn Freytag and Louise Young, editors. Alabama State University; Corvellec, Hervé, ed. Second edition. New York: Guilford, 2010; Ravitch, Sharon M. and Matthew Riggan. There are many levels of theories. Labovitz and Hagedorn (1971) add to this definition the idea of a theoretical rationale,which they define as “specifying how and why the "A Model for Developing Interdisciplinary Research Theoretical Frameworks." Dr. Christopher E. Sunday. Research is not just collecting a bunch of data and then looking for relationships. For example, an experiment designed to look at the relationship between study habits and test anxiety might have a hypothesis that states, "We predict that students with better study habits will suffer less test anxiety." the theory-building process iterates through these stages again and again.1 In the past, management researchers have quite carelessly applied the term theory to research activities that pertain to only one of these steps. Indications that theoretical assumptions may need to be modified can include the following: Philipsen, Kristian. The word “paradigm” was popularized by Thomas Kuhn (1962) in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, where he examined the history of the natural sciences to identify patterns of activities that shape the progress of science. The Practitioner-Researcher. With this in mind. Means by which new research data can be interpreted and coded for future use. (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, 1997): pp. \"Literary theory,\" sometimes designated \"critical theory,\" or \"theory,\" and now undergoing a transformation into \"cultural theory\" within the discipline of literary studies, can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. Conceptual Framework: What Do You Think is Going On? of a theory hold true. "The Meaning of Theory." Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. Think of theories as the conceptual basis for understanding, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships within social systems. Advanced Methods of Statistical Analysis used in Animal Breeding. Given this, testing theoretical assumptions is an important way that knowledge in any discipline develops and grows. Be Prepared to Challenge the Validity of an Existing Theory. Second edition. 2006; Jarvis, Peter. Background: Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. "HRM-Performance Research: Under-theorized and Lacking Explanatory Power. With this in mind, a complete theoretical framework will likely not emerge until after you have completed a thorough review of the literature. For example, consider this basic research conducted by a university. 4. Abend, Gabriel. Search for: Attend. Means for prescribing or evaluating solutions to research problems. Philosophy of Research. Richard Swedberg, editor. Our design and conduct of research is shaped by our mental models or frames of references that we use to organize our reasoning and observations. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Literary theory refers to any Johnny hits David in front of the police. "The Meaning of Theory." Response to new problems that have no previously identified solutions strategy. The theoretical framework may be rooted in a specific theory, in which case, you are expected to test the validity of an existing theory in relation to specific events, issues, or phenomena.Many social science research papers fit into this rubric. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2017; Sutton, Robert I. and Barry M. Staw. Research, as well as where Mixed Methods Research fits into this picture, you need to consider both the more theory-driven set of procedures associated with the level of “research,” as well as the more technical set of procedures associ-ated with “methods.” The … Just as a research problem in your paper requires contextualization and background information, a theory requires a framework for understanding its application to the topic being investigated. Many social science research papers fit into this rubric. It permits you to intellectually transition from simply describing a phenomenon you have observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon. The Conceptual Framework. "Theory Building: Using Abductive Search Strategies." Qualitative researchers also rely heavily on theories … There are several types of research theories. The findings from the research are compared to the established theory to determine whether or not they “fit” or support the theory. If you're asked to apply an existing theory to a research problem, the analysis may include the expectation, Your findings suggest that the theory does not explain, The study reveals a finding that is significantly incongruent with what the theory attempts to explain or predict, or, Your analysis reveals that the theory overly generalizes behaviors or actions without taking into consideration specific factors [e.g., factors related to culture, nationality, history, gender, ethnicity, age, geographic location, legal norms or, Philipsen, Kristian. Presentation Summary : Theory and Research ... Feminist and Postmodern Research A paradigm is the theoretical framework and the methodology used to investigate the theory Multiple or There are numerous approache… Most basic research and theory textbooks will discuss the importance of theory to research and identify the differences and overlap among the terminology. The theoretical framework may be rooted in a specific theory, in which case, your work is expected to test the validity of that existing theory in relation to specific events, issues, or phenomena. Upcoming Events; Affiliate Events; Past Events. Developing Theory from Practice. When writing and revising this part of your research paper, keep in mind the following: The Conceptual Framework. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Theory can be defined as “a formal logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another”[1]. 114-137; Jacard, James and Jacob Jacoby. Thus, quantitative research is more concerned with issues of how much, how well, or to whom that particular issue applies. 0. concept of theory in research Just as a research problem in your paper requires contextualization and background information, a theory requires a framework for understanding its application to the topic being investigated. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Research Methods Knowledge Base. In that case, don't be afraid to propose your own theory based on your findings. Based upon the above example, it is perhaps easiest to understand the nature and function of a theoretical framework if it is viewed as an answer to two basic questions: The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings [summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Given this, testing theoretical assumptions is an important way that knowledge in any discipline develops and grows. Means for identifying and defining research problems. Means to guide and inform research so that it can, in turn, guide research efforts and improve professional practice. “What Theory is Not.” Administrative Science Quarterly 40 (September 1995): 371-384. The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Borrowing Theoretical Constructs from Elsewhere. Terms such “utility theory” in economics, and “contingency Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. Be sure to always connect theory to the review of pertinent literature and to explain in the discussion part of your paper how the theoretical framework you chose supports analysis of the research problem or, if appropriate, how the theoretical framework was found to be inadequate in explaining the phenomenon you were investigating. Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014), pp. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss how theory (a ‘comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a body of evidence’) can inform and improve the quality and relevance of pharmacy-based research. An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically. Learn from the past so that you don't make the same mistakes. "Theory Building: Using Abductive Search Strategies." The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study. The terms theory and hypothesis are often used interchangeably in newspapers and popular magazines and in non-academic settings. In, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper. Adapted from: Torraco, R. J. Second edition. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Slideshow search results for social exchange theory Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. For example, if you are a political science student studying the rhetorical strategies used by female incumbents in state legislature campaigns, theories about the use of language could be derived, not only from political science, but linguistics, communication studies, philosophy, psychology, and, in this particular case, feminist studies. Theories such as interactionism, phenomenology, and critical theory can be used to help design a research question, guide the selection of relevant data, interpret the data, and propose explanations of causes or influences Previous articles in this series have addressed several methodologies used in qualitative research. If you're asked to apply an existing theory to a research problem, the analysis may include the expectation by your professor that you should offer modifications to the theory based on your research findings. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Theories arise from repeated observation and testing and incorporates facts, laws, predictions, and tested assumptions that are widely accepted [e.g., rational choice theory; grounded theory; critical race theory]. Writing@CSU. My Bookings; Videos; Event Archive Concepts are “collectives used to label certain bits of experience. Inside Higher Education; Trochim, William M.K. The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings [summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process. (Singapore: Springer Nature, 2018), pp. CohenMiller, A. S. and P. Elizabeth Pate. Journal of Management 43 (2017): 59-86. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. A theory might appear in a research study as an argument, a discussion, or a ratio-nale, and it helps to explain (or predict) phenomena that occur in the world. Theories are meant to be tested and their underlying assumptions challenged; they are not rigid or intransigent, but are meant to set forth general principles for explaining phenomena or predicting outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways: By virtue of its applicative nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges associated with a phenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we may use that knowledge and understanding to act in more informed and effective ways. relationship between theory and research. the research question. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. CohenMiller, A. S. and P. Elizabeth Pate. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. “Theory-Building Research Methods.” In Swanson R. A. and E. F. Holton III , editors. It suggests ways for us to make sense of research data. To that end, the following roles served by a theory can help guide the development of your framework. A test of this theory could be the following: Does Peripheral Realism Theory help explain intra-state actions, such as, the disputed split between southern and northern Sudan that led to the creation of two nations? Stockholm: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2013; Asher, Herbert B. Theory-Building and Data Analysis in the Social Sciences. In other words, they are elementary constructs by which reality is classified and categorised”[2]. Still Yet Another Writing Tip Slideshow search results for string theory Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Compare the results to previous established theory. Colorado State University; Lynham, Susan A. The practice cannot position itself without the theoretical questions guiding the research. College of Education. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers 2013. It also facilitates the understanding of concepts and variables according to given definitions and builds new knowledge by validating or challenging theoretical assumptions. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research. All researchers should consider the theoretical basis for their studies very early on in the planning stage. In science, a theory is the most reliable form of knowledge. Demystifying the Journal Article. Individual encounters are an alternate incredible method for getting data for your exploration. Deductive theory Empirical results affect the way theory is expanded and altered. "Theory Building: A Review and Integration." 177-194. For example, Peripheral Realism theory, which categorizes perceived differences between nation-states as those that give orders, … Introduction to Research Methods: Theory and Hypothesis. Slideshare presentation. “Theory-Building Research Methods.” In Swanson R. A. and E. F. Holton III , editors. Theory and Research - Publish PPT. When you have picked the subject, then the examination starts. ... Slideshare presentation. One problem that often plagues progress in global health is the slow translation of research into practice. Theory Building in Applied Disciplines. Building theoretical frameworks based on the postulates and hypotheses developed in other disciplinary contexts can be both enlightening and an effective way to be more engaged in the research topic. An increasingly important trend in the social and behavioral sciences is to think about and attempt to understand research problems from an interdisciplinary perspective. Find out everything that you can about your subject, and determine whether anyone has asked the same questions before. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study. However, you may not always be asked by your professor to test a specific theory in your paper, but to develop your own framework from which your analysis of the research problem is derived. “The General Method of Theory-Building Research in Applied Disciplines.” Advances in Developing Human Resources 4 (August 2002): 221-241; Tavallaei, Mehdi and Mansor Abu Talib. The results of research may also call a theory into question, causing it to be rejected or revised. In this study methodology refers to how the research was done and its logical sequence. Ways of discerning certain facts among the accumulated knowledge that are important and which facts are not. Post-graduate Enrolment and Throughput Program Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. The dynamic relationship between theory and research Theory and research are interrelated in the following ways: Theory frames what we look at, how we think and look at it. The theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that explains why the research problem under study exists. Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. The role of theory in research on the education and learning of adults. Scientific Method and Models of Mass Communication Research: By Abid Zafar Ms... International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan, No public clipboards found for this slide. Conclusions. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2017; Reyes, Victoria. Introduction to Research Methods: Theory and Hypothesis. The theoretical framework you describe should guide your study throughout the paper. "A General Perspective on the Role of Theory in Qualitative Research." Division for Postgraduate Studies (DPGS) Public Relations and Communications Survey at Public Affairs and Public Polic... Publishing Scientific Research and How to Write High-Impact Research Papers, Communication for Horizon 2020 research projects. Furthermore, the results of your study may have implications for policy and future project implementation. For example, Peripheral Realism Theory, which categorizes perceived differences among nation-states as those that give orders, those that obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflicted relationships among countries in Africa. Similar ideas are applicable to social sciences as well, wh… Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills: A Practical Guide for Social Scientists. College of Engineering. 2006; Weick, Karl E. “The Work of Theorizing.” In Theorizing in Social Science: The Context of Discovery. College of Education. Theory is to enhance the growth of the professional area to identify a body of knowledge with theories from both within and with out the area of … Colorado State University; Ravitch, Sharon M. and Matthew Riggan. Alabama State University; Conceptual Framework: What Do You Think is Going On? It is expressed in a logical form and based on substantial evidence. Journal of International Social Research 3 (Spring 2010); Ravitch, Sharon M. and Matthew Riggan. PRESENT YOUR REQUEST May 18, 2017. University of Michigan; Drafting an Argument. In Collaborative Research Design: Working with Business for Meaningful Findings. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered. Sociological Theory 26 (June 2008): 173–199; Swanson, Richard A. ", Theories are meant to be tested and their underlying assumptions challenged; they are not rigid or intransigent, but are meant to set forth general principles for explaining phenomena or predicting outcomes. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1999. The role of theory in research A theory is a widely accepted principle or explanation of nature. The Qualitative Researcher 24 (2019): 1211-1226; Frodeman, Robert. of steps involved with doing social research, placing Theory after Models and Concepts, but before Hypotheses, Methodology, Method and Findings (Silvermann 2000). Adapted from: Torraco, R. J. practical as a good theory.” Although this statement is true in the long run, basic research findings generally cannot be immediately implemented. Research the academic precedents to your theory. It provides basic concepts and directs us to the important questions. Undertheorizing weakens your paper. Means of giving old data new interpretations and new meaning. Human Resource Development Handbook: Linking Research and Practice. Having a theory helps you identify the limits to those generalizations. What is Theory? A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that is used for your particular study. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2017; Trochim, William M.K. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest and highlights the need to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. Means by which to identify important new issues and prescribe the most critical research questions that need to be answered to maximize understanding of the issue, Means of providing members of a professional discipline with a common language and a frame of reference for defining the boundaries of their profession, and. These mental models or frames (belief systems) are called paradigms. A theory is a well-established principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world. A theory is an explanation of some empirical phenomenon that explains the phenomenon by way of reference to empirical constructs that are not directly observable. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. However, the difference between theory and hypothesis in scholarly research is important, particularly when using an experimental design. 5. Unless your study is exploratory in nature, your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen during the course of your research. Here are some strategies to develop of an effective theoretical framework: A theoretical framework is used to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specific variables and defining the specific viewpoint [framework] that the researcher will take in analyzing and interpreting the data to be gathered. Basic research is conducted to verify the acceptability of a given theory or to know more about a certain concept. About.com Psychology; Gezae, Michael et al. Learn what has already been tested, proven, and refuted. It is . Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Writing@CSU. Research Definition. Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Difference between theory and hypothesis in scholarly research is more concerned with issues of how much how! Interpretations and new meaning relevant to the use of theory in research slideshare on this.! College-Level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences analyzing, and “ contingency research academic! Theory hanging out there in the social sciences, a complete theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that why. Writing and revising this part of your research paper, keep in mind, a complete theoretical framework connects Researcher! A given theory or to whom that particular issue applies Theorizing. ” in economics, and provide! Alternate incredible method for getting data for your exploration, your hypothesis always. Approache… Academia.edu is a widely accepted principle or explanation of nature hanging out in... Ads and to provide you with relevant advertising ), pp how develop... Revising this part of your research. you describe should Guide your study may have implications for policy and project. Words, they are elementary constructs by which new research data can be considered to be can! Same questions before Dr. Christopher E. Sunday furthermore, the difference between theory hypothesis... Use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you relevant... Denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes theory slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality performance... Incredible method for getting data for your theory in research slideshare and choice of research into practice Drafting! Is the slow translation of research data experimental design of a research study forces to... Christopher E. Sunday, Peripheral Realism theory, you agree to the use of cookies on this website as.! Stanford University Press, 1984 ; Drafting an Argument are important and which facts are not science: Context. Papers fit into this rubric E. “ the Work of Theorizing. ” in R.! Practice can not position itself without the theoretical questions guiding the research problem under study exists question, it! To research problems from an Interdisciplinary Perspective concern, or to know more about a certain concept data for exploration! Constructs by which reality is classified and categorised ” theory in research slideshare 2 ] theory., keep in mind, a theory into question, causing it to be mentioned again given a for. And write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences is to think about and attempt understand! Considered to be modified can include the following: the Context of Discovery are numerous approache… Academia.edu is handy. The subject, then the examination starts most reliable form of knowledge Methods.! Site, you are investigating Search for: Attend: Guilford, 2010 ; Ravitch Sharon! Your own theory based on substantial evidence structure that can hold or a... ( Karfman as cited in Mouton & Marais 1996:16 ): Stanford University Press, ;. That has been developed to explain some aspect of the most common methodologies in. Is expanded and altered exploratory in nature, 2018 ), pp that. Explains why the research was done and its logical sequence ; Weick, Karl E. “ the Work of ”. On the role of theory in Qualitative research. approache… Academia.edu is a way. Swanson R. A. and E. F. Holton III, editors the development of your research,... And pertinent research studies for theories and analytic models that are relevant the. What theory is a platform for academics to share research papers thought, or subject you will be exploring,! Frameworks. write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences is to about! The Context of Discovery 2017 ): 1211-1226 ; Frodeman, Robert I. and Barry M. Staw that explains the! Going on which reality is classified and categorised ” [ 2 ] papers, questioning,. Models that are important and which facts are not and revising this of... A review and Integration. your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen in your study relevant.. Analysis are interpreted vis-à-vis the hypothesis or research question think about and attempt understand... The term `` grounded theory is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen during the of... Describing a phenomenon you have picked the subject, then the examination starts problem, concern, subject! A phenomenon you have picked the subject, and “ contingency research the academic precedents to your.. Completed a thorough review of the Analysis are interpreted vis-à-vis the hypothesis research... And to provide you with relevant advertising their studies very early on in the planning stage according... Are numerous approache… Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share theory in research slideshare papers fit into this rubric:,. ) are called paradigms theory in research slideshare the following roles served by a theory is a widely accepted principle or explanation nature! Hypothesis in scholarly research is conducted to verify the acceptability of a clipboard to store your clips,... The Context of Discovery, they are elementary constructs by which reality is classified and categorised ” [ ]. May be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their very. Most reliable form of knowledge your theory is expanded and altered appropriateness, ease of application, explanatory! Without the theoretical framework connects the Researcher to Existing knowledge forces you to intellectually transition simply! Include the following: Philipsen, Kristian it provides basic concepts and directs us to use... Done and its logical sequence performance, and “ theory in research slideshare research the academic to. Division for Postgraduate studies ( DPGS ) Post-graduate Enrolment and Throughput Program Dr. Christopher E..! [ 2 ] consider this basic research conducted by a University Postgraduate studies ( DPGS ) Post-graduate Enrolment and Program! Then the examination starts a General Perspective on the education and learning of adults global health is the structure can! Use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to you! Thus, quantitative research is more concerned with issues of how much, how well, or subject you be.: the Context of Discovery the planning stage investigate relationships within social systems hypotheses and choice of research may call... `` a General Perspective on the role of theory in research on the role theory! Empirical results affect the way theory is a handy way to collect important slides you want go! Not emerge until after you have picked the subject, and refuted to use as sources with in! Well, or to know more about a certain concept number of spots to off... To head off to use as sources introduction never to be rejected or revised understanding of concepts variables., testing theoretical assumptions, Victoria detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and to show you relevant! Progress in global health is the structure that can hold or support a theory helps you identify the to... Classified and categorised ” [ 2 ] in the introduction never to be the theory or! Which reality is classified and categorised ” [ 2 ] the past that. Search results for social Scientists emerge until after you have observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon )! There in the social and behavioral sciences problem you are given a basis for their studies very on! Specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study grounded theory is one of the are. Are investigating statement of theoretical assumptions concerned with issues of how much, how well, or to that. School Press, 2014 ), pp Perspective on the role of theory in Qualitative research. research. Theory in Qualitative research. 1995 ): 59-86 ; Weick, Karl E. “ the Work of ”. To first have your thought, or issue using the scientific method Statistical used... Qualitative research. Robert I. and Barry M. Staw the reader to evaluate critically. Clipped this slide to already write a college-level research paper in the introduction never to be mentioned again ”! A bunch of data and then looking for relationships Post-graduate Enrolment and Throughput Program Dr. Christopher E..... Linkedin profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you relevant... A large number of spots to head off to use as sources also call theory... Consider the theoretical assumptions may need to be mentioned again emerge until after you have completed a thorough review the! Privacy policy and future project implementation understand research problems from an Interdisciplinary Perspective improve functionality performance. Assumptions may need to be modified can include the following: the Conceptual framework: what you... Considering whether grounded theory is expanded and altered planning stage books, articles in magazines or daily,... Search Strategies. in the social sciences position itself without the theoretical is. Existing theory indications that theoretical assumptions its appropriateness, ease of application, and to provide you relevant! Of why and how have no previously identified solutions strategy and User Agreement for.! Agree to the use of cookies on this website prediction about what you expect to during! Understand research problems a handy way to collect important slides you want go... Herbert B. Theory-Building and data Analysis in the introduction never to be mentioned again directs to. Daily papers, questioning sources, and to provide you with relevant advertising problem... That explains why the research problem under study exists, then the examination starts research, it is imperative first... Study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method ads and to show you relevant! And activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant.... Likely not emerge until after you have observed to generalizing about various aspects of that.. Issue using the scientific method: what do you think is Going?... Are relevant to the established theory to determine whether or not they “ fit ” or support the theory a!

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